The 14th century was a profoundly tumultuous period in European history. Climatic deterioration in the first quarter of the century triggered harvest failures and human famine in a population that had already exceeded the carrying capacity of agricultural production. Human famine was compounded by the widespread loss of cattle and sheep as epizootics spread across the continent. In many parts of Europe, continuous warfare and the consequential increased burden of taxation further stretched agricultural production to breaking point. In the middle of the century the Black Death swept through Europe killing 30–60% of the population. These calamitous events had profound social and economic repercussions that resonated far beyond the immediate aftermath of the population crash in the late 1340s and early 1350s.
Understanding of the 14th-century crises needs:
- a broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together humanities and sciences;
- a comparative approach to enable the examination of different landscapes with their distinct historical and ecological backgrounds.
An ecological perspective on a local or regional scale may help to understand the specific causes and effects. Furthermore, it may help to overcome deterministic interpretations and to deal with the complexities of the 14th centuries crises and the human responses to them.
Some of the disciplines involved are:
Currently our knowledge on the 14th-century crisis is based primarily on written evidence. Besides chronical reports of famines, plagues and weather extremes, there are also data on prices of grain for example, which may reflect not only local policy but also supraregional crop failure. To understand the crises we need detailed analysis of local case studies. Additionally, historical and medieval studies are crucial to help us understand contemporary perceptions and explanations of the plague and other 14th-century hazards.
Already for some decades medieval archaeologists have been interested in the phenomenon of abandoned settlements, which have been in many cases connected with the 14th-century crises. However, to understand the changes in settlement pattern we need to broaden our perspective by looking more closely at existing settlements as well as land use patterns.
In England and Germany, zooarchaeological evidence (the study of animal bones from archaeological sites) is beginning to document significant changes in dietary identities and agricultural production occurred during the 14th century, which testify to changes in the patterns of land-holding, land use practices, and rising living standards. Analysis of animal bones can also identify the distribution of the black rat (Rattus rattus).
Archaeobotany and palynology
Whereas in some landscapes reforestation during the late medieval period is visible in palynological (pollen) data , in many cases such evidence is missing. Quite often, the interest of palynological studies has instead focussed on prehistoric periods or has not produced data with the chonrological precision to explore environmental and climatic change in the 14th century. Archaeobotany (the study of macrobotanical remains) also has the potential to explore the changing nature of diet and land practice, although this remains an under-explored avenue of enquiry.
The analysis of human skeletal remains has proven potential to shed light on morbidity and mortality rates in populations before and after the Black Death, through the analysis of stature, stress indicators, and disease. The context of deposition also provides indications of how survivors dealt with mass mortality events, and in some cases it is possible to extract and detect the bacterial pathogen through aDNA analysis.
Ancient and modern DNA studies enable the detection of causative pathogens, when found in human skeletal remains, but also make the evolutionary history of germs, such as Yersinia pestis, possible to trace.
Analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen from human and animal remains make it possible to track the changing nature of human and animal diet before and after the Black Death. Some stable isotopes, such as oxygen, can be used to detect climatic change, while others (e.g. strontium) have the potential to track the movement of people and livestock.
The effects of heavy weather effects and land use practices can be detected through the analysis of soils and sediments. In many regions of western Central Europe geoarchaeology has indicated substantial soil erosion during the 14th century. To take just one example, the St. Mary Magdalene’s flood in July 1342 caused massive gullying.
An analysis of preserved insect remains can help to detect micro-and macro-environmental changes. Furthermore it maybe possible to identify fleas, important for the spread of plague.
Analyzing tree rings allows detailed reconstructions of weather and climatic conditions. This is essential for the understanding of the 14th century as a transition period from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age.
Meteorological expertise is especially important for understanding the causes and impact of extreme weather events of the 14th-century . This raises the question to what extent, for example, did changes in land use in the medieval period influence the risk of thunderstorms and heavy rain.
Some of these disciplines have contributed important research, however, others are just beginning. The primary aim of this network – which emerged from a session held at the Conference of the European Association of Achaeologists (together with Medieval Europe Research Conference MERC) 2012 in Helsinki, Finland – is to connect scholarsworking on this shared theme, and encourage inter-disciplinary, trans-national research and knowledge exchange.